Despite great strides in enforcement of the cartel prohibition of article 81 EC and major merger control reform, EC competition law still lacks clear standards for anti-competitive abuses under article 82 EC. In a masterful engagement with this issue, The thoughtful and original analysis in this book focuses on tying and bundling. Although these ubiquitous business practices are primarily addressed under article 82 EC as constituting abusive behavior, a wealth of economics literature emphasizes their strategic and efficiency motivations. However, there is a balance to be found, As this book ably demonstrates. In the course of the analysis, The author zeroes in on such central questions as the following: bull; What tests are available to determine whether two products are distinct or not? bull; Under which circumstances is anti-competitive leveraging feasible? bull; Which efficiency motivations should be accepted? bull; How does one valuate the possible efficiencies in the short run And The risk of leveraging effects in the long run? bull; What factors should be considered when answering the separate product issue? bull; What are the implications For The burden of proof under article 82 EC? bull; Does the application of a more effects-based approach under article 82 also affect the dominance analysis? In his examination of the various responses to these probing questions, the author is able to formulate a very useful diagnosis of what factors determine whether a tied or bundled entity is likely to engender anti-competitive effects. The presentation is supported throughout by detailed reference to relevant legal-economic doctrine, laws, and judicial interpretation by European and U.S. courts, The European Commission, and antitrust agencies. In its development of effects-based tests for assessing tying and bundling practices, this important book will be of special value to policymakers and regulatory officials involved in enforcement of EC or Member State competition law. it will also be welcomed by academics in both law and economics as a truly cogent and workable approach To The solution of one of the most vital and intriguing debates in the antitrust field.
Recent years have seen remarkable advances in the devel- ment of techniques that have direct applications in neurological research. In consequence, the circulatory and metabolic status of the brain can be measured and correlated with changes m structure often noninvasively, m the same - and integrated function, perimental subIect This has stimulated an increased awareness of the complexity, under normal and pathological conditions, of the interdependence of these factors. Through the application of the methods described in this volume, however, these complexities can now be analyzed. The chapters m this volume present methodological - scriptions of some of the most powerful "physicochemical" methods for studymg the brain. Multidisciplmary teams are - quired to develop some of these methods, which are extremely expensive m terms of capital equipment costs and technological personnel support Thus, they will likely remain restricted to malor medical research centers Nevertheless, many recent concepts of brain responses to disease are a result of their application We have been fortunate m convincing active, leading sci- tists to contribute to this volume. The descrrptions of the basic prmciples of each method, and its applications and limitations, are derived primarily from their personal experiences. The first two chapters (Rowan, Auer) deal with methods for assessing brain hemodynamics. The two subsequent chapters (Greenberg; He- covitch) describe autoradiography and positron emission tomog- phy techniques, which provide quantitative measurements of brain metabolism as well as blood flow.
The need for this book arose from my teaching, engineering, and - search experience in the non-power aspects of nuclear technology. The lack of a comprehensive textbook in industrial applications of radiation frustrated my students, who had to resort to a multitude of textbooks and research publications to familiarize themselves with the fundam- tal and practical aspects of radiation technology. As an engineer, I had to acquire the design aspects of radiation devices by trial-and-error, and often by accidental reading of a precious publication. As a researcher and a supervisor of graduate students, I found that the needed literature was either hard to find, or too scattered and diverse. More than once, I discovered that what appeared to be an exciting new idea was an old concept that was tried a few decades earlier during the golden era of "Atom for Peace". I am hoping, therefore, that this book will serve as a single comprehensive reference source in a growing field that I expect will continue to expand. This book is directed to both neophytes and experts, and is written to combine the old and the new, the basic and the advanced, the simple and the complex. It is anticipated that this book will be of help in - viving older concepts, improving and expanding existing techniques and promoting the development of new ones.
Gilles Deleuze and Flix Guattaris Anti-Oedipus is the first part of a two volume project entitled Capitalism and Schizophrenia. Challenging the twin orthodoxies of Lacanian psychoanalysis and Althusserian Marxism, Anti-Oedipus is an important and exciting, yet challenging piece of philosophical writing. Ian Buchanans Readers Guide to Anti-Oedipus is the ideal companion to one of the twentieth-centurys most influential philosophical works. It provides informed and accessible guidance on: Philosophical and historical context Key themes Reading the text Reception and influence Further reading
The sound management of public finances is, in Williams' view, the most important factor in attaining the twin objectives of economic growth and improvement in the standard of living in small open developing economies. While looking at the challenges of public finance management in small states, with a focus on Barbados, this book suggests strategies of fiscal and microeconomic management for small economies that will permit them to ensure macroeconomic stability while promoting economic growth and development. In discussing the philosophy of public finance, it examines small size and openness, using both traditional criteria and modern perspectives of liberalized systems. It deals with the challenge of avoiding overly expansionary budgets and the need for counter cyclical policies in relation to macroeconomic objectives.
This book also discusses state involvement in commercial types of enterprise and the implications for efficiency and economic growth. The Keynesian approach to fiscal spending is compared with the structuralist approach, which takes into account initial conditions and inflexibilities facing small developing economies. The government's role in financing accelerated economic development, its social responsibility, and the balancing need for fiscal discipline are also considered. The public finance performance of governments is seen as facing important challenges to its capacity to champion economic development given the increasing global perception of a mostly regulatory and stabilizing role of government.
Cucina Cosmetica Articles
Cucina Cosmetica Books