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Natural Disasters, Cultural Responses
Catastrophes, it seems, are becoming more frequent in the twenty-first century. According to UN statistics, every year approximately two hundred million people are directly affected by natural disasters-seven times the number of people who are affected by war. Discussions about global warming and fatal disasters such as Katrina and the Tsunami of 2004 have heightened our awareness of natural disasters and of their impact on both local and global communities. Hollywood has also produced numerous disaster movies in recent years, some of which have become blockbusters. This volume demonstrates that natural catastrophes-earthquakes, hurricanes, floods, etc.-have exercised a vast impact on humans throughout history and in almost every part of the world. It argues that human attitudes toward catastrophes have changed over time. Surprisingly, this has not necessarily led to a reduction of exposure or risk. The organization of the book resembles a journey around the globe-from Europe to North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia, and from the Pacific through South America and Mexico to the United States.
While natural disasters appear everywhere on the globe, different cultures, societies, and nations have adopted specific styles for coping with disaster. Indeed, how humans deal with catastrophes depends largely on social and cultural patterns, values, religious belief systems, political institutions, and economic structures. The roles that catastrophes play in society and the meanings they are given vary from one region to the next; they differ-and this is one of the principal arguments of this book-from one cultural, political, and geographic space to the next. The essays collected here help us to understand not only how people in different times throughout history have learned to cope with disaster but also how humans in different parts of the world have developed specific cultural, social, and technological strategies for doing so.
Poucher's Perfumes, Cosmetics And Soaps
Poucher's Perfumes Cosmetics and Soaps has been in print since 1923 and is the classic reference work in the field of cosmetics. Now in a fully updated 10th edition, this new volume provides a firm basic knowledge in the science of cosmetics (including toiletries) as well as incorporating the latest trends in scientific applications and legislation which have occurred since the 9th edition.
This edition will not only be an excellent reference book for students entering the industry but also for those in specialized research companies, universities and other associated institutions who will be able to gain an overall picture of the modern cosmetic science and industry.
The book has been logically ordered into four distinct parts. The historical overview of Part 1 contains an essay demonstrating William Arthur Poucher's influence on the 20th Century cosmetics industry as well as a chapter detailing the long history of cosmetics.
Part 2 is a comprehensive listing of the properties and uses of common cosmetic types, ranging from Antiperspirants through to Sunscreen preparations. There are an increased number of raw materials in use today and their chemical, physical and safety benefits are carefully discussed along with formulation examples. The many additions since the last edition demonstrate the dramatic recent expansion in the industry and how changes in legal regulations affecting the development, production and marketing of old, established and new products are operative almost worldwide. Information on specialist products for babies and others is included within individual chapters.
The chapters in Part 3 support and outline the current guidelines regarding the assessment and control of safety and stability. This information is presented chemically, physically and microbiologically.
Part 3 chapters also detail requirements for the consumer acceptability of both existing and new products. Those legal regulations now in force in the EU, the USA and Japan are carefully described in a separate chapter and the remaining chapters have been extensively updated to explain the technical and practical operations needed to comply with regulations when marketing. This information will be invaluable to European Union and North American companies when preparing legally required product information dossiers.
The final chapters in Part 4 contain useful information on the psychology of perfumery as well as detailing methods for the conduct of assessment trials of new products.
As ingredient labelling is now an almost universal legal requirement the International Nomenclature of Cosmetics Ingredients (INCI) for raw materials has been used wherever practicable.
The advertised volume is the 10th edition of what was previously known as volume 3 of Poucher's Cosmetics and Soaps. Due to changes in the industry there are no plans to bring out new editions of volume 1 and 2.
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