Skin is the outer-most tissue of the human body. As a result, people are very aware of, and very sensitive to, the appearance of their skin. Skin appearance has, consequently, been a subject of great interest in various fields of science and technology. In particular, research on skin appearance has been intensely pursued in the fields of computer graphics, computer vision, cosmetology, and medicine. The Appearance of Human Skin: A Survey reviews the most prominent results related to skin in these fields and shows how these seemingly disconnected studies are related to one another. In each of the fields, the optical behaviors of specific skin components have been studied from the viewpoint of the specific objectives of the field. However, the different components of skin produce different types of optical phenomena that are determined by their physioanatomical characteristics (sizes, shapes and functions of the components). The final appearance of skin has contributions from complex optical interactions of many different skin components with light. In order to view these interactions in a unified manner, The Appearance of Human Skin describes and categorizes past works based on the physiological and anatomical characteristics of the various skin components. One of the major goals of skin research is to develop a precise and yet computationally efficient model of skin appearance. The Appearance of Human Skin surveys the many important results that have brought us closer to achieving this goal. However, it also highlights the many important and challenging problems that remain unsolved and need to be addressed. It will be of interest to anybody researching, or planning to conduct research, on the appearance of human skin.
It is difficult and laborious not only for the beginner but also for the advanced researchers to survey literature and to appreciate former studies properly. To enable both to do this, the book is compiled. Purpose of the book covers karyotypes, which have been reported since the latest book on fish karyotypes (Klinkhardt et al. 1995), and following points are informed. 1. synonym of the species is checked based on Eschmeyer (2009, Catalog of Fishes) and a current classification of higher taxa follows Nelson (2006, Fishes of the World). 2. When the current species names differ from those in original karyotype papers, both names are listed. 3. Genome size is added. According to Gregory (http: //www.genomesize.com/), genome sizes determined by different methods are differentiated. 4. As for the arm number, NF1 and NF2 are differentiated. M and SM are defined as two arm chromosomes in NF1, while M, SM, and ST are defined as two arm chromosomes in NF2. 5. Sex chromosomes, B chromosomes, and ploidy are checked. 6. The ancestral chromosome number (ACN), which is defined as diploid chromosome number of the latest common ancestor and inferred from Robertsonian transformation, is proposed. As the largest group of extant vertebrates, fishes offer an almost limitless number of striking examples of evolutionary adaptation to environmental and biotic selection pressure. The book is useful for verifying plausibility of phylogeny based on gene trees, for the study on relationships between karyotypes and biogeography, and for the study on relationships between karyotypes and biodiversity
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