R. MARKS Biology has become a 'numbers game'. The advantages of being able to grade changes in tissue, submit results to statistical analysis and accurately record biological phenomena make measurement essential. This is as true for the various disciplines in applied biology as it is for the more esoteric aspects ofthe subject. Regrettably, sk in biologists until recently had not seized the opportunities that the availability of their tissue of interest afforded and fell behind in the exploration of measurement techniques. Probably this resulted in part from the mistaken sentiment that 'to see is to know'. It also originated from the complexity ofthe skin which. as a closely interwoven mixture oftissue types. makes assessments technically difficult. However, we are optimistic about the future. The International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin was formed in Cardiff in ] uly 1979 in response to the wishes of the delegates who had attended the first International Symposium on the subject in Miami in 1976 and the second in Cardiff 3 years later. This volume is the proceedings of the Cardiff meeting. We believe that it demonstrates the brave efforts and variety of new ideas that characterise the studies of scientists who realise the importance of blending the phYSICal sciences with skin biology.
As the largest group of extant vertebrates, fish offer an almost limitless number of striking examples of evolutionary adaptation to environmental and biotic selection pressure. The most diverse of all vertebrate groups, the higher taxa of fish traditionally have been classified by morphology and paleontology, with a much smaller input of cytogenetic information. DNA sequence data are exerting an increasingly strong influence on modern fish systematics, challenging the classification of numerous higher taxa ranging from genera to orders. The most fruitful approach, however, involves synthetic analyses of morphology, molecular phylogenetics, comparative karyology, and genome size. Karyotypes of more than 3400 species/subspecies are arranged here by fish systematics and include a list of genome size, sex chromosomes, B chromosomes, polyploidy, and locality of material fish, among others. This volume enables both beginners and advanced researchers to survey the existing literature and facilitates the implementation of an integrative approach to fish systematics. The first book on fish chromosomes in nearly 15 years, it is also the most comprehensive.
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